Insiders: Individuals at a company with access to material, non-public information (MNPI).
Misappropriators: Corporate outsiders who gain access to MNPI.
Tippers: Individuals who provide MNPI to a third party in breach of a duty and in exchange for a personal benefit.
Tippees: Individuals who receive MNPI from someone (the tipper) in breach of that person’s duty and in exchange for a personal benefit.
Controlling Persons: Entities and their supervisory personnel who must take appropriate steps to prevent illegal insider trading.
Aiders and Abettors: Individuals with knowledge of an insider trading violation and who provided “substantial assistance” to the primary party committing insider trading.