Insiders:  Individuals at a company with access to MNPI.

Misappropriators:  Corporate outsiders who gain access to MNPI.  

Tippers:  Individuals who provide MNPI to a third party in breach of a duty and in exchange for a personal benefit.

Tippees:  Individuals who receive MNPI from someone (the tipper) in breach of that person’s duty and in exchange for a personal benefit. 

Controlling Persons:  Entities and their supervisory personnel who must take appropriate steps to prevent illegal insider trading. 

Aiders and Abettors:  Individuals with knowledge of an insider trading violation and who provided “substantial assistance” to the primary party committing insider trading.  


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